Technical Articles

What is a 4 probe measurement equipment?

When it comes to measuring electrical properties of various materials, a reliable and accurate system is required. One such system is the 4 probe measurement equipment.

The principle behind 4 probe measurement

The 4 probe measurement technique is based on the concept of four-point probing, also known as Van der Pauw method. It is widely used to determine the resistivity and sheet resistance of materials, particularly for thin films and semiconductor devices.

In this method, four equally spaced probes are placed on the surface of the material under test. Two of these probes are current electrodes, while the other two are voltage electrodes. The current electrodes inject a constant current into the material, and the voltage electrodes measure the resulting potential difference.

By measuring the voltage drop and current flow with high precision, the resistivity and sheet resistance of the material can be calculated using mathematical formulas derived from the underlying physics principles. This non-destructive testing technique is highly accurate and has extensive applications in research laboratories and quality control processes.

Applications of 4 probe measurement equipment

The versatility of 4 probe measurement equipment makes it indispensable in many scientific and industrial fields. Some of the key applications include:

Semiconductor characterization: The 4 probe measurement technique allows researchers to accurately assess the electrical properties of semiconductor materials and devices. This information is crucial for optimizing performance and ensuring manufacturing quality.

Thin film analysis: Thin films are commonly used in electronic components and solar cells. The 4 probe measurement equipment can determine the resistivity and sheet resistance of these films, guiding their design and optimization.

Material research: Whether it is exploring novel materials or analyzing the electrical behavior of existing ones, 4 probe measurement serves as a vital tool for characterizing a wide range of materials, from metals to polymers.

Nanotechnology: As nanoscale devices continue to revolutionize various industries, precise measurements of electrical properties become essential. The 4 probe measurement technique enables researchers to evaluate the conductivity and resistivity of nanoscale materials and structures.


The 4 probe measurement equipment plays a significant role in understanding and optimizing the electrical properties of materials. With its ability to provide accurate data on resistivity and sheet resistance, it has become an invaluable tool in the fields of semiconductor technology, thin film analysis, material research, and nanotechnology. By harnessing its potential, scientists and engineers can continue to push the boundaries of innovation and drive advancements in various industries.


Contact: Nina She

Phone: +86-13751010017


Add: 1F Junfeng Building, Gongle, Xixiang, Baoan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

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